Human Health Risk Assessment/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Support – Raymark Industries Superfund Site

Location: Stratford, Connecticut

Environmental Protection Agency, Region I (under contract to Nobis Engineering)


  • Performed Human Health Risk Assessments for multiple Operable Units and multiple exposure scenarios.
  • Primary contaminants were lead, copper, PCBs, and Asbestos in soil and fill and chlorinated VOCs in groundwater.
  • Used simplified ratio approach to provide cost effective risk updates.
  • Feasibility Study support.


The Raymark Facility operated from 1919 until 1989, when the manufacturing plant was shut down and permanently closed. Raymark manufactured friction materials containing asbestos and non-asbestos components, metals, phenol-formaldehyde resins, and various adhesives. As a result of these activities, soils at the Facility were contaminated with, among other things, asbestos, lead, copper, and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs). During the facility’s 70 years of operation, it was common practice to dispose of the Raymark Facility manufacturing waste as “fill” material both at the Raymark Facility itself, as well as at various locations throughout Stratford. Raymark also offered manufacturing wastes as “free fill” to employees, residents, and the town for disposal at locations throughout the Town of Stratford. This Site has involved several different operable units, including commercial properties, wetland areas, residential properties, a ballfield, areas used for recreational fishing, a landfill, a town-owned recreational area, and groundwater exposures through volatilization of contaminants into indoor air spaces of homes and businesses. The primary COPCs in soil and sediment are lead, PCBs, SVOCs, and asbestos. In addition, a groundwater plume of VOCs emanates from the site and has moved into residential and commercial areas and toward the Housatonic River. Avatar Environmental team members have evaluated risk to human health through evaluation of soil, sediment, biota, surface water, ground water, soil gas, and indoor air sampling results and modeled indoor air, soil gas, and future surface water concentrations, as well as participated in groundwater sampling. Following a comprehensive groundwater sampling round and vapor intrusion studies, Avatar prepared updated evaluations of potential risks at homes and commercial properties from vapor intrusion. Most recently, Avatar has used a simplified and cost effective approach to updating risks at six of the operable units for residential, commercial, and recreational exposures to soil and sediment and provided support for Feasibility Studies at these operable units.